Many of the animals inhabiting the land are considered large and powerful. Sometimes, however, the evolution is moving in strange directions . Often as a result of living in isolation and safety animal may start to lose the need for large amounts , and each successive generation will be a little less.
In many Mediterranean islands are the remains of small elephants, known as dwarf . This phenomenon is called insular dwarfism . Over time, due to the isolation a kind of animal is reduced in size . Dwarf elephants evolved from large , who came to these islands before the water level rose . The smallest elephant weighed 200 kg and was 90 cm tall Unfortunately, most dwarfs died 11 thousand years ago, when the Earth's climate became warmer and the weather changed.
Dwarf antelope is the smallest of all antelopes . Its height of just 25 cm , weight - 3 kg. Its size antelope not received because of the isolation , as other animals , and because of their diet. Antelope herbivores , and each species eats different types of leaves. One tree can feed any number of antelope , as at different heights different foliage . Ancestors dwarf antelope eat the foliage growing below , but because of competition with other small antelopes , this animal had just the same decrease in size . Dwarf antelopes live in the tropics of West Africa and feed on leaves in the undergrowth . They are very cautious and shy and only come out at night. Surprisingly, if they scare these antelopes, avoiding the danger can jump into the air at 2.5 m It is as if a man could jump up to 18 m .
Sulawesi , one of the islands in Indonesia , live dwarf buffalo, two species of dwarf water buffalo : plains and mountain Anoa Anoa . Water buffalo usually 3 m in length , 2 m in height, and they weigh over 1000 pounds. In contrast, mountain pygmy buffalo only 70 cm in height , 1 m in length and weigh them is 200 kg . Flat Anoa not much more. Size of these small buffalo fashionable to compare with the dog. Unlike cows Anoa live alone or in pairs, eat leaves and grass. They are often hunted for their skins , which are of good quality . As a result, this species is endangered.
Virginia kruglopaly gecko
One of the three Virgin Islands is home to the small reptile in the world. The length of this gecko is 18 mm, and weight 0.15 g They live on the slopes of the hills and hide in relatively moist crevices between the stones . Because of their small size , they do not find easy, so the exact number of the population is difficult to say . Because of their small size, they lose moisture two times faster than their larger cousins, so dwarf geckos prefer moist places, and they breed only when a lot of water around .
Cypriot pygmy hippo
Cypriot pygmy hippopotamus hippos extinct species inhabiting the island of Cyprus from the Pleistocene until the early Holocene. Their height is 75 cm and length 120 cm, weight 200 kg. The smallest surviving hippos slightly larger in size and are known as pygmy hippos live in West Africa. They left in the wild only 3000